Nuclear Winter

The severe cooling effect which caused due to the nuclear Attack by any country. Nuclear Winter is a theory based on the global climatic consequences of a nuclear war; the prolonged and worldwide severe cooling effect as well as the darkening of the sky because of the blocking of the direct sunlight in the stratosphere and smoke and soot entering in the atmosphere.

The term nuclear winter was first termed by the American astronomer Carl Sagan (1934-1966) and group of his colleagues in their 1983 article. This article was the first one to talk not only about the direct but also indirect consequences of the nuclear war. Initially it was named Nuclear Twilight and later the name was changed to Nuclear winter.

The basic assumption one can make by nuclear explosion is that, resulting smoke and soot released from burning forests and cities being emitted into the troposphere and stratosphere in huge amounts. This will lead to blocking the sun’s radiation from reaching the surface of the Earth. This will cause the Earth’s temperature to cool at a speedy rate. Due to high temperature soot and smoke will rise up into higher altitudes without being washed off. Finally, these particles would settle in Northern hemisphere mid-latitudes as a black belt of cloud particles, lead to blocking sunshine for several weeks. And due to huge explosions, heat, light, blast, this devastation takes place. This will lead to crop failure and famine in severe form. The consequences will so worse that decades will be less to recover from this devastation.

Climatic effects, ozone depletion and nuclear summer are some of the unnoticed consequences of Nuclear Winter.

CLIMATIC EFFECTS will be drastically disturbed after the nuclear explosions. A little attack can also devastate the climate at least for a decade, not a small issue as we have already put our environment on the edge of damage. The researchers estimated that 5 million tons or more soot would be released which is the huge thing and would produce a cooling of several degrees.

OZONE DEPLETION will be caused by the elevated nitrogen oxide produced after the nuclear detonations. This nitrogen oxide then breaks down the air around them by thermal convection. After reaching the Stratosphere,breaks the ozone present in the atmosphere which causes severe skin diseases and the risks are particularly high for young children, the elderly, and those with asthma or other respiratory difficulties. Also, the soot released after these nuclear explosions includes the massive fires in urban areas which can spread up to 80 km in stratosphere.

NUCLEAR SUMMER, one of the most severe consequence of the NUCLEAR WINTER. It is a hypothetical scenario which will be followed by the nuclear winter. This will begin after 2-3 years of nuclear winter, which would result increase in temperature at very high extend and the winter will be soon converted to summer which will lead to raise in surface temperature rapidly. This will cause countless deaths and many diseases.


Various countries claims that they have nuclear weapons and to prevent its use and to spread peace, there is Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, an international treaty to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear weapons , and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. This treaty came to force in 1970 but opened its signatures in 1968 itself.

If we talk about the current situations, can clearly see that the world is at the edge where there are conflicts, fires, political issues which raise internal riots and some cause international awareness. From racism, color based or gender based or say, opportunity based we all stand as one. One side where world stands as one, the other side is totally contracts the scenario in the political world where there is the whole situation is of war and this pandemic of covid made it worse.

The nuclear war will bring many disastrous situations with it. countries claiming to live in bunkers will require a lot more efforts and will include its own pros and cons.

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